NNPC Clinches Reuters Oil Deal Award

The Joint Finance Team of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, NNPC and its Joint Venture Partners, Chevron Nigeria Limited have clinched the prestigious Africa and Middle East Oil Deal of the Year Award 2015.
The NNPC stated that the Thomson Reuters /PFI Magazine award is in recognition of the novel $1.2 bn multi-year drilling financing package for 36 Offshore/Onshore Oil wells under the NNPC/CNL Joint Venture initiated under the Accelerated Upstream Financing Programme executed at a Signing-ceremony in London in September, 2015.
The initiative, which was designed by the NNPC to address the perennial challenge experienced by the Federal Government in providing its counter-part funding of JV upstream activities, earned the apex corporation the award for conceptualizing, structuring and delivering an oversubscribed deal in a challenging macro-economic environment.
Code-named Project Cheetah, the $1.2bn alternative financing package, was the first to combine funding of both oil production as well as domestic gas to support power generation in Nigeria from a medley of carefully sequenced offshore and onshore wells.
The deal is projected to fund 36 wells and deliver 41, 000 barrels of crude oil per day and projected peak incremental production of 127 million standard cubic feet of gas per day (mmscfd) in the years ahead.
Also the package is projected to generate between $2-5bn of incremental revenues to the Nigerian government over the life of the project (subject to prevailing oil price in the upcoming years).
The funding package is being financed by a consortium of Nigerian and International lenders led by Standard Chartered Bank and UBA.
The global award which is one of the most prestigious in the International financing market is based on feedback from peers and market operators with full endorsement by the judges at Thomson Reuters /PFI.

Lamorde’s Fate Hangs In Balance

Nigerians are still wondering whether erstwhile Chairman of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, EFCC, Ibrahim Lamorde, is still in the Police Force or not, having gone under soon after he was removed and shortly after a probe of his tenure was muted.
While our correspondents report that contrary to earlier speculations that Lamorde fled the country, the man is still in Nigeria, though he has failed to report back to the Police from where he was seconded to the EFCC. This perhaps explains why the Police last week dribbled on our enquiries on Lamorde’s status in the Force, as Police spokesperson, declined comments on the issue when inquired by our correspondent.
nationalTRAIL reports that, Lamorde, until he was relieved of his appointment by President Muhammadu Buhari, late last year, was a serving Police Officer, on the pay roll of Nigeria Police Force, but since his removal from office, his status in the force remains a matter of conjecture, as he never reported back to duty, nor was he announced to have been retired, or dismissed.
It may be recalled that, the status of one of his predecessor, Mallam Nuhu Ribadu, was dogged with similar controversy, when he was removed as EFCC Chairman, and the issue generated a lot of public debate until his status was eventually clarified by the Police.
Nigerian Police Spokesperson, was not in a hurry to clarify Lamorde’s status until she gets explanations from higher authorities, which did not come until the time of going to press.
There are however, strong indications over the last two weeks that the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), has commenced a detailed investigation into some financial transactions during the tenure of the immediate past chairman of the commission.
The anti graft body which initially appeared reluctant to indict its own, may have set the machinery for the probe, even as Lamorde, who has stoutly defended fraud allegations during his tenure in the dying days of his chairmanship obviously did not wish to carry the cross that is now his lot.
In addition to the series of petitions which eventually led to his ouster, our correspondent gathered that, the commission has not been able to pay its staff ‘s allowances throughout the period Lamorde held sway as the Chairman of the agency: an action which earned him disdain amongst staff.
Sources within the commission confirmed this much, as according to it, the fear of the former Chairman made it impossible for them to even demand for their entitlements, saying, “it was a reign of terror, staff were blackmailed and allowances withheld without explanations from the office of the chairman”
nationalTRAIL reliably gathered that Lamorde, who was recently relieved of his appointment as the Chairman of EFCC may have come under investigation for an alleged abuse of office and which sordid details included the alleged diversion of money recovered by the commission before and during his tenure.
It could be recall that the Senate Committee had invited him to appear before the National Assembly , to explain his role in alleged missing funds in the Commission.
The fraud allegedly perpetuated by Lamorde was said to have dated back to his days as the Director of Operation in the commission: between 2003 and 2007, as well as acting Chairman of the commission between 2007 and May 2008, when the then Chairman, Mallam Nuhu Ribadu, was away for a course at National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies , NIPPS, Kuru Jos.
Goerge Uboh, The Chief Executive Officer of the Panic Alert Security System, a security firm in another petition dated July 31, 2015, specifically alleged that Lamorde was involved in under remittance, and non disclosure of proceeds of corruption recovered from criminal suspects, including Tafa Balogun, and late Diepriye Alamiesyehga.
nationalTRAIL learnt that Lamorde may also be investigated for offshore recoveries and mismanaging of some of the assets recovered by the Commission.

Intrigues, Threats, Blackmail Attend N200Bn Probe

By Sam ADEGBE, Abuja

Fund Stuns Senate, Exonerates Bogoro’s Management Team
How Petitioners Mislead Senate Into Controversy


Available facts may have exonerated the management of the Tertiary Institutions Trust Fund, TETFund, which is facing a committee of the Nigerian senate to defend allegations of mismanaging of over N200 Billion, alleged to have been remitted into the coffers the fund, between 2012 and 2013, being proceeds from 2% tax deductions on contracts across the country.
nationalTRAIL findings indicates that the Nigerian senate may have goofed by inadvertently being dragged into acting out a script for some desperate office seekers, which may eventually rubbish its proclaimed transparent oversight, following revelations that the celebrated N200Billion alleged scam was a hoax after all.
Senator Abdullahi Aliyu, from Niger state, somehow unsure of his own figures, who raised the alarm on the floor of the Nigerian senate last December, may have inadvertently misled his distinguished colleagues into a needless controversy, and a wild goose chase, an exercise generally viewed by the public with suspicion.
The senate Committee on tertiary institutions which was mandated to probe the allegation, must have been stunned by TETFund’s submissions to the effect that the search for the money in its coffers was misplaced, and the petition a mere conjecture, lacking facts to warrant the interest the Nigerian senate seem to show on the matter.
Our correspondent reports that, proofs being placed before the senate committee include the fact that Professor Suleiman Bogoro, the executive secretary of TETFund, and ostensibly the target of the attack, came on board on April 14th 2015, and the issues being complained about took place long before he came to the office. To this end, he was not in the best position to explain the actions being queried, even if such actions were wrongly taken.
This is even as nationalTRAIL findings further reveal that, records point to the fact that, contrary to what the petitioner wanted the Senate to believe, and probe, TETFund never accessed the said money, and could not have mismanaged what was neither remitted to its accounts, nor given to it in whatever form.
On the other hand, a Presidential committee, headed by former Benue state Governor, Gabriel Suswan, may have accessed N273.9 Billion, directly from the Central Bank in 2013, with the express approval of former President Goodluck Jonathan, and disbursed the funds to 59 tertiary institutions across the country under the NEEDS Assessment programme of the then Federal Government.
Although the NEEDS Assessment Intervention could have been ordinarily covered by the Act establishing TETFund, the then government in its wisdom did not deem it expedient to channel the funds through TETFund, though, TETFund and other stakeholders were part of the Suswan’s Committee, which was reported to have done a swell job, as many projects have been verified to have been undertaken under the intervention.
These revelations in TETFunds submission before the senate, since the petition was tabled on the floor of the senate, tends to lend credence to the suspicion that the Senate was being cajoled into acting out a script used to mischievously set up Professor Suleiman Bogoro, and his the management at TETFund, to ensure their ouster so as to pave way for a preferred candidate as head of the organization.
Be that as it may, the management of TETFund, our correspondent learnt, has made a good defense of its position over the matter, revealing to the Nigerian Senate that, it eyes are being deliberately covered from the achievements of TETFund under Professor Bogoro , by portraying his management as corrupt. The fund explained that it was not ready to compromise the integrity for which it has been known for over the years.
It remains a fact that TETFund has been adjudged for three consecutive years as the most performing and transparent Government agency, just as it is a truism that, the fund has sponsored the execution of projects in virtually every tertiary institution in Nigeria under its purview.
Records indicate that TETFund has sponsored amongst many others, the completion of projects at the Moddibo Adama University, Yola, Adamawa State Polytechnic, also in Yola, Gombe State University, Kebbi State University of science and technology, Aliero, Yaba College of technology, Lagos, University of Ibadan, Federal University of Technology, Akure and the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, amongst several others.
Available records also indicate the sponsorship of projects at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Michael Okpara University, Umudike, the University of Jos, Nasarfawa State University, Keffi, College of Education, Akwanga, the University of Ilorin, Usman Danfodio University, Sokoto, Bayero University Kano, as well as the Federal College of Education, Zaria.
Amongst other universities positively affected by TETFund, outside the controversial N200 Billion, include, the University of Port Harcourt, University of Benin, Akwa Ibom State University, Niger Delta University on Wilberforce Island, Federal College of Education, Obudu, the university of Maiduguri, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu and the Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University in Bauchi, to mention but a few.
According to our findings, while the petitioners misfired in falsely accusing TETFund of mismanaging funds that never accrued to it, the issue of bias in the sponsorship of projects has been proven to be false as TETFund projects cut across all tertiary institutions in the country, depending on their size and needs. Access to TETFund intervention is usually predicated upon performance and usage of previous allocations, we learnt.
Stakeholders in the education sector, as well as staff of TETFund, while giving TETFund management a pat on the back for prudence, and visibility of projects across tertiary institutions, were quick to dismiss attempts at linking Professor Bogoro’s management with unwholesome practices.
Some staff of the organisation, told our correspondent on conditions of anonymity that, Suleiman Bogoro, from Bauchi State, who is billed to appear before the Senate Committee on Tertiary Education on Tuesday, to re-echo TETFund defences, may be facing religious persecution by some forces, who have not hidden their disdain for his rising profile and continued stay in the office, at the expenses of their own preferred candidates.
To some, it was rather curious that issues in the petition had been subjects of past investigations, and its resurgence on the floor of the senate smacks of political witch hunting, given the fact that Bogoro was appointed by the immediate past administration which most people perceive as corrupt in all facets. “The petition stems from a recycled issue which had been investigated and dismissed by appropriate authorities”, one of them intoned.
Professor Bogoro, a minority Christian from Bauchi state has declined comments on the perceived tussle between him and some political forces from the north East, but our correspondent who has been following developments around him reports that, he seems to be getting too relevant in the politics and governance of the country, which in turn makes some people uncomfortable, given the unfolding trends in the politics of Bauchi State in particular.
Investigations in the senate reveal that most senators who initially believed the allegations contained in the petition and supported the probe are beginning to soft paddle, as it is becoming clear that they were misled into crucifying the organization, which many others are looking up to as a model.

Slain Civilian JTF Family Cry Out For Justice

By Yahaya WAKILI, Maiduguri
Parents of a Civilian JTF volunteer, Abdulmajid Ahmed, who was killed on duty, has taken the Borno state Government to task, over the manner the deceased family was neglected since the incident which took the young man’s life occurred.
Hajiya Rakiya, Abdulmajid’s mother told nationalTRAIL in Maiduguri that her son was one of the five Civilian JTF volunteers who were blown to death by a suicide bomber around Jiddari Polo, in Maiduguri sometime last month, but neither the Borno state Government which claims to care for the volunteers, nor the high command of the Civilian JTF has condoled the family since then.
“I lost beloved son Abdulmajid in a bomb blast on the 27th December, 2015 by 7:00 pm at Jiddari. My son is a Civilian JTF Sector 5 with I.D No. 710.
My son died in active service by protecting his nation and the people in his unit. Since the inception of civilian JTF my son has been very active he was even appointed as discipline master of his unit, but no officials from Civilian JTF neither the Borno state government has come to condole me’, she lamented.
“It is really surprising as i was thinking that my son was helping his nation that is why i allow him to take part in the work, only Almighty Allah will condole me”, Hajiya Rakiya further said, stressing that the state Government only pays lip services to the issue of welfare of boys involved in this very dangerous duty.
According to her, she is aware that the Government has visited and even compensated other families of JTF personnel who died on active service, but her son’s case was made different because they are not Kanuris.
Abdulmajid was amongst five Civilian JTF volunteers who were lured by a female suicide bomber, who pretended to be sick and needed help, only to detonate an explosive device strapped on her body as they approached to give her helping hands.
All five volunteers were killed, and according to their families, the Government which recruited them has abandoned them to their fates, as there was not even a word of condolence from the governor, Kashim Shettima, as was the case with others.

We Owe No Workers Salaries-Edo Govt

By Monday EBALU, Benin City

Edo state government has reiterated that no workers in the state is owned salary, saying that December salary was paid before Christmas day.
Reacting to the coalitions of tertiary institutions workers who protested round some major streets in Benin demanding for their five months salaries owned them by the Edo State Government, the state commissioner for Education, Gideon Obakhan said the state government does not owe any of its works force, including workers of the state owned tertiary institutions.
Gideon Obakhan said yesterday while interacting with some journalists on the issues said Edo state government is the few state in Nigeria today that have been able to pay salaries.
“The issue with the coalition of tertiary institutions union is between them and their management. Every month the state government gives subvention to these institutions and they are expected to also generate revenue internally to be able to runs the schools.
“I think it is either misunderstandings of how these institutions are run on the part of the coalitions or people are just trying to be mischievous.
“It is untrue that the ministry have not wadded into the crisis between the union and their management. We have series of meetings in my office where they appeal for support and bailout and in December last year, close to the Christmas period, the governor, in order to reduce the pressure on the workers who were saying the schools have not paid them, approved a bailout for them which was paid to the institutions.
“I have received messages from these institutions that they have received same and have also paid their workers.
“Like I said earlier, their agitation could be due to the misunderstanding on how the processes works or people just want to be mischievous for political reasons.
“Says they (coalition) have raised several issues which are largely internal to them and we have sent messages to their management in that regards and awaits responses from them.
“I cannot rely on hear say or act based on what I heard from one party. When I get the responses from management of these institutions, I would decide on the next line of action to take.
According to the commissioner, “How the government operates is that we give subvention to these institutions on a monthly basis depending on their size to support the running of the institutions.”
“One thing I want to state here is that these schools are largely autonomous. For instance, AAU get a subvention of about N254 m, USEN get something of about N25m.
“What they are expected to do with the fund is to run the schools which involves the payment of salaries, provision of facilities, although they also get support from TETFUND. Government provide some counterpart funding to run this.
“These institutions are also to generate revenue internally through school fees, and other legal means. This is expected to be argument to the subvention in the running of the schools.
“Payment of salaries is solely their responsibility. They decide the number of lecturers and administrative staff they employ. The prudence of how these funds are expended rest with the management of these schools.
“We do not interfere in the management of these institutions. They decide whether properly staff or whether their internally generated revenue is sufficient to argument what they received as subvention from the government.
“If they decide today to reduce the staff strength to meet up with their financial requirement is entirely up to them. We do not interfere on how with how they pay but we support them through monthly subvention.
“So when this people come out to say government is owing them, it shows their lack of understanding of the processes or being sponsored by opposition.
“But I expect that haven being in the system for so long, they should know how these schools are run.”
Responding to the commissioner comments, the president of the coalitions of tertiary institutions said, “it is not true as I have said several times. We didn’t request for bail out but said they should pay us our salaries. They are owing the Colleges in the coalition between 3-5 months. We embarked on another street protest in December because the state government was still owing us and as I speak with you now, they are still owing us.
“The problem started about two years ago since we started our agitation. At a point they used the trust fund or corporative to pay us. After the first tranches of about N89 million naira they paid in 2014 to bail the school out of the crisis, and they set up an investigative panel and after that it never came out with any other payment. The government is owing us and we are embarrassed.”

$14bn Refinery: CBN Assures Dangote Of Support

Following its proposal to build a refinery worth $14 billion, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) has said that it would assist the Dangote Group to access foreign exchange to facilitate the project.
This was disclosed by the Central Bank, CBN Governor, Mr. Godwin Emefiele during a tour of the refinery which is projected to refine 650,000 barrels of crude oil per day.
Speaking during the tour of the facility at its location within the Lekki Free Trade Zone in Lagos, the CBN governor said that the support was to ease the importation of equipment needed to bring the Dangote refinery to reality.
Your ongoing 14 billion dollar refinery investment will enjoy our support, no doubt.
We are doing this to fast-track the importation of equipment you need for a speedy completion of that project and to encourage other Nigerians to follow your lead,’’ Emefiele said.
According to him, the tour is necessary to lend our support to this laudable project that will transform Nigeria’s downstream oil sector.
The Dangote Group approached us to indicate their interest to invest in refining crude, such that petrol-chemicals, fertiliser and fuel will be produced, about three years ago.
Today, the three projects, which are valued at 14 billion dollars (N2.8 trillion), are on course and this is highly commendable, ‘’ he said.
Emefiele said the CBN would continue to support tremendous and impactful projects that would improve the socio-economic profile of the country through such investments.
He said the diversification of the Dangote Group was worthy of emulation by other industrialists.
By the time this refinery is completed, it will not only service the needs of our domestic economy but shore up our international oil investments.
“Projects like this and our support will encourage more Nigerians to begin to think like the Dangote Group,’’ the CBN boss added.
Alhaji Aliko Dangote, Chairman, Dangote Group, said that the refinery would commence commercial operations at the early period of 2018.
We are set to unveil the world’s largest refinery which will make Nigeria self-sufficient in petroleum products refining and also become a major exporter of oil.
This project will mark a turning point in Nigeria’s search for local refining of crude oil.
We will ensure the value chain in crude oil production is uplifted and other facilitators properly integrated into our scheme,’’ he said.
The chairman said that the fertiliser production aspect of the refinery would be completed by 2017.
Dangote said: “This project is generally about saving foreign exchange and earning more for our nation through the diversification of the economy.
We started with local production of cement and today we export more than 12 tons of it.
We don’t need dollars now to continue to produce Dangote Cement and that is the same thing we will do with this refinery.
This refinery will have the capacity to serve this country optimally and it is part of our contribution in the vanguard to diversify our economy”, he added.

Gov Al-Makura Fetes Graduates

By Alheri Dogo

Governor, Umaru Tanko Al-Makura of Nasarawa State has offered scholarships or automatic employment to Solomon John Akoji, a visually impaired graduate and to any first-class graduate of the Federal University Lafia, who are indigenes of the state.
The Governor made the offer during the maiden convocation ceremony of the Federal University Lafia, where he admonished Nasarawa state indigenes to strive and excel in their studies.
Among the benefiting graduates are Williams Yaji overall best student of the school and first class student of Economics, Muazu Ibrahim, Abdulaziz Zakari, and Bashir Eya, all of whom graduated with first Class honours degrees in their chosen fields of study.
He said that the beneficiaries are at liberty to chose, either to continue their studies to doctorate degree levels on Government sponsorship or take up automatic employment in the Nasarawa State civil Service.
Apparently elated Governor urged them to live up to their billings as pioneer graduands, saying, “my dear graduands, as pioneer products, it is my hope and, indeed, expectation that you will all live to your billings as good ambassadors of this ivory tower. As patriotic citizens, society looks up to you as models in our march to the promised land”.
While promising to do everything possible in encouraging the education of Nasarawa state citizens, Governor Almakura further said, “In this connection, I urge you to be steadfast in your support to the present Administration by directing your intellects and energies towards adding value to the nation-building process, as well as maintenance of cherished national ethics”.
“You must remember that whatever you do in the larger society will always be inferred to this University which has become your Alma mater”.
Al – Makura said his administration will continue to accord priority to education and support those who excel in their academic pursuit, stating that, his administration has set up machinery to re-invent the lost glory of the educational system which was the reason the state government declared a state of emergency in the educational sector.
He also called on Nigerian universities administrators to work towards reinventing research methodologies by to redirecting their research works towards entrepreneurial initiatives in order to reverse the trend of mad chase for white collar jobs, saying, “I wish to crave the indulgence of the University to run courses that are relevant to the development needs of the State”.
“I, therefore, urge you to be frontal in inculcating entrepreneurial training and character building that will mould the thinking of our youths towards self-reliability and social reorientation.”
The convocation attracted prominent educationists and scholars across the country, being its maiden edition.

Bayelsa Polls: Gov Dickson Bounces Back

The Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) candidate and the incumbent governor of the state, Seriake Dickson has been re-elected as the Governor of the state.
He was declared winner by the INEC state Resident Electoral Commissioner, REC.
At the last count, Dickson polled 134,998, while his major contender, Timipreye Sylva of the All Progressives Congress (APC), polled 86,852.
Breakdown of the votes showed the number of registered voters as 654493 while accredited Votes were 242114. Total valid votes were 225520 with 6647 rejected votes and total votes cast which stood at 232167.
Further breakdown shows that All Progressives Congress, APC scored 86,852, the Peoples Democratic Party, PDP 134,998 while Peoples Democratic Movement scored 1,572 votes.
Meanwhile, the Rivers State Governor, Nyesom Wike has declared that the re-election of the Bayelsa State Governor, Hon. Seriake Dickson is a victory for democracy in the face of unrelenting external forces.
In a congratulatory message to the Bayelsa State Governor, following his re-election at the conclusion of the supplementary governorship election, Governor Wike said that the will of the people of Bayelsa State has prevailed as they have resolved to remain with the Peoples Democratic Party, PDP.
A statement issued by the Governor’s Special Assistant on Electronic Media, Simeon Nwakaudu, pointed out that the people of Bayelsa State exhibited the true Niger Delta spirit which abhors oppression and injustice.
He said that with the re-election of Governor Seriake Dickson, a clear message has been sent to the dark forces of rigging and electoral manipulation that they will never find accommodation in this geo-political zone.
Governor Wike specifically commended the good people of Bayelsa State for being vigilant all through the governorship election process, saying that their hard work and dedication to the enthronement of democracy have been rewarded by the re-election of a true Niger Delta patriot.

Saraki Puts Smile On Violence Victims

By Steve Oni, Ilorin

President of the Senate, Dr. Bukola Saraki in Ilorin, the Kwara state capital, gave out the sum of N2,650,000 as succour to victims of last year’s fracas at Agbarere and Ita Ajia whose vehicles were destroyed by the hoodlums who invaded the quarters and inflicted damage on their property.
The Director General of Abubakar Bukola Saraki (ABS) Constituency Office, Hon. Abdulwahab Issa, who handed over the money on behalf of Saraki, said that N50,000 was approved to be given to each of the 28 victims at Ita Ajia and 25 at Agbarere whose vehicles were affected.
The Director General recalled that when the incident occurred on April 25, 2015 during which five houses were burnt at Agbarere, Dr. Saraki sent N500,000 for the rehabilitation of the houses, while he gave another N1,500,000 to them when he personally visited the scene about a fortnight later.
For the incident at Ita Ajia, he said Saraki sent N500,000 for the rehabilitation of the damaged building and like sum when he visited.
‎Speaking on behalf of the beneficiaries, Alhaji Funsho Issa, the Chief of Staff to Chairman of Ilorin East Local Government, thanked the President of the Senate for the gesture and prayed God to continue to assist him also.
He praised his sense of leadership and especially for always standing by his people.
It would be recalled that the fracas which paralysed commercial activities within the areas caused the Kwara state government to set up a special security squad which tracked the perpetrators of the heinous act and has succeeded to stem the tide.

WHO To Double Cholera Vaccine Supply In Nigeria, Others

By Oluwaseun OLUWAROTIMI, Abuja

World Health Organization (WHO) has said that it is making efforts to double the global supply of oral cholera vaccines in order to ease global shortage.
This scheme will be applicable to Nigeria and some affected countries, according to the agency in a press statement exclusively made available to National TRAIL’s reporter at the weekend.
According to the statement, the initiative is coming just as the United Nations Health agency has approved a third producer, helping to address global shortages and expand access in more countries.
“Globally, Oral Cholera Vaccines (OCV) production is low, with demands currently exceeding supply. Sudan and Haiti last year made requests to WHO for supplies of vaccines to conduct pre-emptive vaccination campaigns that could not be filled because of the global shortage” the statement reads.
Furthermore, the agency said the vaccine producer, a South Korean company, is the latest oral cholera vaccine (OCV) manufacturer to be approved under the WHO’s pre-qualification programme, which ensures that drugs and vaccines bought by countries and international procurement agencies such as the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) meet acceptable standards of quality, safety and efficacy.
It added that the addition of an additional pre-qualified vaccine producer is expected to double global supply to 6 million doses for 2016, with the potential for further increased production in the future, stressing that this additional capacity will contribute to reversing a vicious cycle of low demand, low production, high price and inequitable distribution, to a virtuous cycle of increased demand, increased production, reduced price and greater equity of access.
Cholera is an acute diarrhea disease that can kill within hours if left untreated. There are between 1.4 million and 4.3 million cases a year, and as many as 142 000 deaths. Cholera is endemic in more than 50 countries, but usually only garners international attention during humanitarian emergencies, such as the outbreak among refugees in Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo, in 1994 that killed tens of thousands. Climate change and El Niño may also be contributing to more frequent cholera outbreaks.

Oral cholera vaccines have been used in mass vaccination campaigns in response to humanitarian emergencies since 1997. But because the disease disproportionately affects poor communities who are often unaware that the vaccines exist, there has historically been little demand for the products.
In 2013 the WHO created the world’s first OCV stockpile, undertaking to buy and use 2 million doses a year in order to stabilize and create demand for the vaccines.